Norbert Elias and the History of Manners - Assignment Example Elias critically examinees the historical norms that have been put in place over time and how these have been received and implemented in several societies. An example is an issue of spitting in public places. Elias (156) argues that the series quotations or norms that involve the issue of spitting has drastically changed since the middle ages in a particular direction, and in among Europeans considered as being the most unpleasant behavior, and has even been viewed as being unhealthy. The process through which these types of manners have been evolving to be accepted by society as Elias elaborates would constitute a process through which civilization has taken place. As described above, civility according to Calhoun is communicating an attitude of mannerism towards others. Elias critical examines how social issues such as cleanliness, spitting, and others that would constitute mannerism, have evolved to amount to a process through which civilization has evolved in society. Largely, Elias utilizes rhetoric to evaluate how mannerism, has evolved over time to form widely embraced social manners. Elias (159 explains that the inclination to spit or even look at the sputum in children or even in a dream and its corresponding suppression can be viewed in the specific comic that overcomes us when such similar things are spoken in the general public. Elias in this presents the idea of the malleability of psychic life. The use of children is significant of how the society is eager to learn on its way to civilization in a process that would amount to psychological development in the formation of attitudes that would later be embraced as the standards of public order. It is in such a process that civilization would be said to amount to psychological maturity, where the society develops codes of behaviors that come to be understood and embraced as signs of respect towards others, which has been explained as the essence of maturity. The formed trends that involve codes and norms concerning public behavior or how one should have respect to others as a process to civility then led to the psychology regarding the art of observing people. Elias (104) argues that this psychology cannot be taken in the scientific view, but as the ability that stems out of the importance of life at a court that clearly defines the capacities, motives and the limits that other people have. It is through a court process that the gestures, expressions, intentions and other behaviors of people are weighed to critically examine their meanings and to the extent that they contradict with respect to others, public decency.
Some are abducted or forcibly recruited, others are driven to Join by poverty, abuse and discrimination, or to seek revenge for violence enacted against hem or their families. There is legislation in place that makes illegal any involvement of children under age 18 in hostilities, however it is still rampant throughout the world. The use of Children in war is an epidemic that has plagued humanity since the earliest civilizations and has developed through time. In medieval times in Europe, young boys from about twelve years of age were used as military aids called squires, though their role in actual combat was supposed to be limited.In 1212, the Estevez 2 Children's Crusade rounded up thousands of children, with the notion that they will ucceed in battle due to divine powers that will ensure their victory. In 1814, Napoleon was faced with an invasion and recruited many teenagers for his armies aged between fourteen and seventeen. During the 1800's and the age of sail, young boys formed part of the crew of British Royal Navvy ships and responsible for many important tasks. Even during the Civil War a 15 year old received the Medal of Honor for his acts during the Civil War Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest day in American history.People under the age of eighteen fought in world war one and world war two, even beside the fact it was illegal. They had age restrictions, but due to the patriotism, of the boys, and the conditions of England they accepted some and others passed by into the military. In Cambodia, during the Vietnam War, a communist group exploited thousands of desensitized children, recruiting them to commit mass murders and other inhuman acts during the genocide in Cambodia. They were brainwashed and taught to follow any orders without any hesitation.I find this a betrayal of the responsibility adults have towards children. In the 16th and 17th centuries, childhood began to be recognized as a different state then adulthood. Society began to see children not as miniature adults, but as a person of a lower level of maturity needing the protection, love, and nurturing of an adult to guide them through that stage of their lives. This was the change in society that transitioned to children being given less responsibility than adults.The division Estevez 3 of children and adults became officially recognized, however it didn't eliminate the abuse of children. The use of children in battle and wars has been around for a long time, but has taken a new form in todays society due to the improvement of technology. The early 1900's are regarded as a huge development of war weapons, with the creation of the fully automatic rifle. Through the century, they have involvement of children in modern conflicts that typically involve irregular forces; they usually target civilians. 80% of the fighting forces composed of child soldiers, this is one characterization of the â€˜new wars,' which constitute the dominant form of violent conflict that has emerged only over the last few decadesâ€ (Schauer and Elbert). The motivation for armies or soldiers to recruit children to be use in war is that children have a limited ability to asses risk. It is easier to manipulate the mind of a child than it is a mind of an adult. They have feelings of invulnerability, shortsightedness, and cost less money. Children receive fewer resources, including less and smaller weapons and equipment.They are more likely to get killed or injured in the front lines than their adult counter parts. Children and young adults who are facing poverty, starvation, unemployment, and ethnic or political persecution, can be lured by the idea of becoming a soldier to escape the pain they feel. In interviews from â€œThe Psychological Impact of Child Soldieringâ€ they say, â€œthat hildren are more malleable and adaptable. Thus, they are Estevez 4 easier to indoctrinate, as their moral development is not yet completed and they tend to listen to authorities without questioning themâ€ (Schauer and Elbert).The conflicts that use children in the battlefield usually start by the breakdown of a government. It becomes difficult to identify those who are recruiting and using children as soldiers, making it difficult to influence them to stop. Child soldiers typically raised in environments of severe violence are often made to commit the worst cruelties and atrocities. The children would be repeatedly exposed to these traumatic stress', during the most crucial stages of development. This caused mental and physical damages changing their personalities.Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is also a common disorder found in children solders, because they are so young they become deprived from a normal and healthy development, impairing their integration into society as a fully functioning being. During the twentieth century the proportion of civilian casualties in armed conflicts has continually increased and is now estimated to be more than ninety percent. Half of the casualties are children, and more than 2 million died as a result of armed conflicts over the last decade.In addition to that, at least 6 million children have been seriously injured and between 8,000 and 10,000 children are killed by landmines every year (UNICEF, 2005). Seven of the ten countries with the highest rates of deaths of children under the age of five are due to the affects of armed conflicts in the countries. Estevez 5 In â€œThe Psychological Impact of Child Soldieringâ€, they interview three people who had been child soldiers. The first interview was of a sixteen year old boy who had een an active recruit for three years since the age of thirteen, for the group, Mai- Mat.His recruitment process was a lot more civil than the other two. He stated that, â€œl was frightened, since our home was attacked almost every night by bandits and other rebel groups as well, what did I have to lose? Also my parents were too poor to send me to school anymore my mind was made up fast, I Joined my friends and from that boy had served five years after being recruited at age fourteen. He says, â€œ350 strokes were given on my back and buttocks. After a while the pain was so big that I felt that t would be better if I was deadâ€¦..But then I heard a loud voice: â€œGet up. â€ I tried, but I couldn't sit. I kneeled for almost one hour. I realized that all other children around me had died in the beating. I could see them lying still and not breathingâ€ (Schauer and Elbert 7-8). The next boy was recruited at 13 and served three years as a child soldier, he explains how they would kill other soldiers as punishment, â€œWhen people did something really wrong, they got killed as a punishment .. .1 have seen 5 people being killed for severe disobedience during my time with the group.They were crucified in the forest. Nailed to trees at their hands and feet higher up on tall trees. The nails were thick ones, you would first nail through the palms of the hand and later through the feetâ€ (Schauer and Elbert). Estevez 6 It may seem to the individual that some children Join these groups with their own free will, but in a psychological and social point of view, children's choices to Join and remain in armed groups cannot be considered Voluntary. There are reasons or circumstances that may lead children to be more accessible to Join a militant group.
Language Barriers In Global Advertising Cultural Studies Essay
Strategic advertising and marketing of recent years are not now same for each continent and country, but it started to change. Today, it is common to enhance a uniform strategy to be employed globally. Therefore, this enhancement recommends that the periodically issue of cultural changes have been obviously broken. The good side of international advertising is the creation of a integrated brand that can be known at everywhere, regardless the language it might be used. Some instances of those global brands are;
Culture is a broad topic which includes everything from socially spread behavior, arts, beliefs, tradition, education and thought. It is obvious that there are going to be vital cultural differences regarding the different historical base of country. There are three main topics for culture that have normally been cited to wrong interpretations and social mistakes. Indeed if we list them: religion, sex and language spoken. Religion, is a subject most people would exactly not try to debate with a foreigner. Some changes in mind according to worship and the traditions related in it can spark some controversy. Furthermore, the persist pressure to rise the population of the value is a factor to religion being a general subject that invites social mistake and misjudge. Therefore, it is so hard to demand an international advertising promotion on a religious product without leading to protests or rumors. Cultural changes regarding gender are recognized to nearly all societies. (Gilly 1988, p.76) by the thought of advertising, it is essential to connect sex to language because language make human reality solid.
1.2 Language: Root cultural barrier
Despite there are broadly spoken languages in the world like Spanish, English and Chinese, the challenge of language as a cultural obstacle is still. Being the main vehicle of expression, language becomes the root cultural barrier that differs people from one field to another. Since language is important in advertising, it is noted that the specific use of words make or cut the efficiency of a promotion.
1.3 Tackling the language barrier
When designing a worldwide advertising campaign, the most important thing that international companies should remember is to decide whether they will create a standardized campaign or make varied advertisements for select countries. Language is always a key element in discussing standardization. There are cases where all the execution elements of a worldwide campaign are the same except for the language. But this is not a common scenario because most advertisers agree that the message becomes more effective when put in the vernacular instead of one standardized language. Furthermore, they also use standardization in almost all key elements more than their non-Western counterparts. (p.64) With the results of this particular study, one can say that the trend today leans toward standardizing language less since all the top agencies originate from the West.
2. MEDIA LIMITATIONS
Commercial media is another effective effect on international advertisement. Â Media might reduce the effects of advertising set of plan and might push the firms to underline the other aspects of promotional mixture. A firms ability to create is basically challenged while a television advertisement is restricted to ten showing one year without two exposal nearer than ten days.
Advertisers affect what sort of story is interpreted. More effective, advertisements themselves form peoples opinions of the world. They are a spreading source of unreality, encouraging lack of security and movement of buyers.
There are of course number of issues with the intense media.
But some of the media are much better than others, judged by the criteria of accuracy, quality and independence of special interests. Most media critics seem to believe that it is possible to promote and develop enlightened, responsive, truly educative mass media. Efforts at reform can be worthwhile, but have intrinsic limits.
The issues are not with media in common, but with media, namely those media that are produced by relatively few people compared to the number who receive them. Most large newspapers, radio and television stations suitable for this description.
Mass media by their nature give power to a few and offer little scope for participation by the vast majority.
2.1 The power of the mass media is corrupting.
The sole unexpected thing is how responsible some of the broad media are. Given the corruptions of power, revolution of the broad media, beside useful, should not be the target. Instead, the purpose should be to occupy widely media by communication systems that are more open to participation.
If we focus on the usual approaches we can outline that most analyses of the media presume that there are just two options, both, state control or a free market. The problem with control by the government is that control is from a centre based.
The media of military regimes and bureaucratic socialist states are infamous with their censorship. The supporters of the free market dispute that state-owned media, or narrow regulations, are noxious even in liberal democracies.
The issue with free market media is that they give only a so restricted freedom, namely freedom for wide media firms and other dynamic corporate interests. Everyone is free to own a publishing company or television station.
The primary issue seen as adopting a global strategy is:
It is really hard for firms, especially in deeply centralized businesses, to manage all the activities of various of broadly scattered international applications.
2) The organization has to continue existing communication between headquarters and the auxiliaries.
3) When held to an intense, worldwide technique ends in a lack of reaction quality and flexibility in particular market aimed.
4) Regional leaders who are passed of self independence on their country operations might be down and cause a lack of organizational courage.(Hills, Gerald E, 1997)
3 CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
In the international area, understanding and identifying cultural distinct may make a huge change between successful business negotiations and mortifying rejections. International business communication plays a main role in this, while understanding how to communicate through what they are talking about as view is a big advantage.
Every culture has their own way of saying things, what may not be offending to you may be offending to them. International business communication is all about knowing the important thing that lies behind peoples words in the international arena.
International business communication is communicating across cultures and the first thing we have to keep in mind is the basic understanding that one size does not fit all. Keeping in mind that the cultural traditions or habits we have does not mean that everyone else around the world does. As it is said, When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
Culture is the different ways in which people act, or consider towards themselves, families, and other people in the community. It involves traditions related with social, political, family, and religious values. Differences must be identified and recognized to bridge the gaps between cultures and for real communication to take place.
Some of the effective international business communication guidelines that may help you swing that deal are:
Non-verbal and Verbal behavior
Each language have their own linguistic choices, and those choice help us giving clues about the specific cultures the way to act, manners, and considering. The English people use modesty and understatement, and are sometimes deliberately unclear to avoid confrontation and so kind. Oratory, expressiveness, and flowery of words are most general among Italians and the Spanish, Germans and also are so reasonable in manner. Knowing what people mean when they say yes is very important; it may mean yes, I understand but not yes, I agree.
Gestures consists sensitivity and mindfulness, as gestures that are not violating to you might be so violating to the other, as in the case of indicating someone to come, some would hold out their hand with the palm up and then move the fingers gesturing the person to come. In Asian culture however, this kind of gesture is considered offensive. To gesture someone to come in Asian culture should be done with the palm facing down and then rolling the fingers.
3.1 Relationship between Culture and Advertising
Advertising is thought to act as a mirror reflecting culture by transferring current cultural meanings (McCracken 1986).Â By rephrasing, advertisements are taken in consideration as a model of social communication that influence the cultural values of a society (Khairullah 1995).Â Meantime, advertising makes and builds new type of cultural values and meanings by affecting group identities and reinforcing stereotypes.Â Therefore advertising is not sole affected by cultural values moreover behaves as an agent affecting cultural values.Â Since a marketing concept, advertisers have been more fascinated in the influences of culture on buyers reaction to advertising.
People prefer to live in their cultural restrictions; for instance, people have their own cultural values and norms, which affect the way they consider, feel and behave.Â People in the same ethnic groups have same tendency to share the language, traditions and values,.Â These shared values like culture influence peoples cognitive (beliefs and motives), affective (emotion and attitude) and behavioural (purchase and consumption) processes.
Regarding this idea of advertising as a mirror, cultural values and standards are implanted in ads in such a way that consumers can see themselves and identify with the characters in the ads and feel affinity with the brands (Hong, Muderrissoglu and Zinkhan 1987).Â Therefore, cultural distinctiveness in the world influences how ethnic buyers consider and acknowledge advertising messages.
4 HIGH CONTEXT AND LOW CONTEXT COMMUNICATION
Nowadays business relations, world is small. Since so many companies turn to worldwide markets, workers are finding themselves in foreign locales, dealing as never before. Nevertheless, the main thing to efficient communication for countries is an understanding of each others culture, tradition, as a working knowledge of how each society passes meaning.
It is first used by author Edward Hall, the expressions high context and low context are categorises explaining inherent cultural distinctiveness between communities. High-context and low-context communication aims implying to how much speakers depend on things other than words to pass meaning. In every culture, members are supplied with particular filters that let them to concentrate sole on what community has considered significantly. Mainly, cultures that refer low-context communication will have to pay more attention to the literal meanings of words than to the context surrounding them.
International advertising has gone a quite long way with combining different ties and breaking distinct borders over the world. The awareness of a product if they are placed in an area far from home, suddenly point efficiency and value. By the thought of occuring a global village with the exceeded products the world has to suggest, worldwide advertising has well worked with media in making this real. Nevertheless, cultural obstacles are still in place across the world. An opinion of a woman in Turkey cannot be same as a woman in the United Kingdom or the one from Kenya. By language as the main tool for explaining these opinions, worldwide advertising has a hard way of contending with those cultural differences due to many physical differences in language and its different interpretations.
Therefore, a study has reached the conclusion that beside standardization was put to affect, sole execution and strategy are nearly all the time standardized. Language, what is thought a separate aspect, still balances the line. This outline, that it is a main belief that languages are still a hurdle that can obstruct the efficiency of a message. The numerous interpretations that can be gathered will reduce the single push that the product needs to advertise. Nevertheless, there are styles in advertising that can receive a message without the words used. Language can either be a obstruction and a tool, it is how one is going to use it what is going to decide its aim. As worldwide advertising points to promote a good that can keep busy peoples minds and affect consumer behaviors, international advertisement campaigns have to be straight forward and easy to help message of the product philosophy is not going to be lost in translation, so to speak.
Understanding the cultures and their differences is primary thing in Inter cultural communication.
There are various factors in communication like time, social framework and non-verbal communication. Communication itself is an exchange of information between senders and receivers, and thus, people easily refer it as a simple matter. However, communication is very complex and high-technological context to understand and to use. This complex context becomes more difficult when culture is involved. Different cultures have different ways to communicate, and by understanding how these cultures communicate, effective inter-cultural communication can be achieved.Â
McCain mean by saying that â€œwithout courage all virtue Is fragileâ€? It means that If we lack courage to hold on to our beliefs In the moment of testing, no just when everybody agrees with our opinion but also when they go against opposition, then our beliefs are superficial and weak and add nothing to our self respect for our virtues. Explain the concept of moral courage using an example. Is it different from physical courage?Moral courage: Is the ability to act rightly In the face of popular opposition, shame, scandal, or discouragement. This is the courage many people face on an everyday basis, always doing what Is right regardless of the consequences faced. Most people have a hard time doing the right thing when doing the opposite Is easier matter how hard It Is, and regardless of being Judged. This Is mostly because of human nature to care for their selves before others. For example, a group of guys walk down the street and watch a man's wallet fall from his pocket.The right thing to do is pick it up and return it back to the man. Because, there are a group of guys the better option is to walk away with the wallet. Therefore, your moral courage is questioned. All it takes is one person taking a stand for doing the right thing. Physical courage is familiar to many people: is courage in the face of physical pain, hardship, death, or threat of death. For example, when a building is caught on fire, people call the fire department. Firefighters run Inside that building regarding their fatty to help and protect the people trapped Inside.Regardless of the situation they make sure the people are safe, and sometimes losing their lives to save a stranger. Putting their lives on the line, not to overpower or harm others, but to serve and protect them. In these actions they deserve much respect for their hard work and dedication to serving others. What does McCain mean by â€œdoing one's nearest duty'? Does the fact that McCain is a high-profile politician add an element to that idea? Explain why or why not?It means that we should always strive to comply with our responsibilities and duties in every aspect of life. For five years, McCain was a POP in Vietnam. At one point he was offered his freedom but chose to stay behind with his fellow soldiers. That decision resulted In torture by his captors. Evaluate Moccasin's decision In terms of physical and moral courage, and the concept of ones' nearest duty. â€ resulted on more physical pain and torture. This action shows and represents mental courage and a sense of responsibility towards his personal duties.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.